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Dengue fever; symptoms and treatment

dengue fever

About Dengue Fever:

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the dengue virus, which is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, especially, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, the disease is a significant public health concern in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It cannot spread directly from one person to person. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, management, and precautions associated with a dengue fever. Basically, in any viral fever, our immunity goes down. To know more on “How to build immunity”, read this article, An estimated 450 million dengue infections occur worldwide each year, with about 95 million resulting in illness. Doctors can diagnose dengue infection with a blood test to check for the virus or antibodies to it.


The virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family and has 4 distinct serotypes. DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity to that specific serotype, but not to the others. Additionally, if a person is subsequently infected with a different serotype, the risk of severe dengue increases. Transmission occurs through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes are most active during the early morning and late afternoon. They breed in stagnant water sources like discarded containers, flowerpots and uncovered water storage.



It typically manifests in two forms: uncomplicated and severe (previously known as hemorrhagic fever).

Uncomplicated: Common symptoms include sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, (especially behind the eyes), joint and muscle pain, skin rashes and mild bleeding. For example, nosebleeds and gum bleeding). These symptoms last for about 2 to 7 days.

Severe: In some cases, it can progress to severe dengue, characterized by severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, bleeding, and organ impairment. High grade fever can lead to dengue shock syndrome, or dengue hemorrhagic fever, which are life-threatening conditions.


There is no medicine to treat this infection. The management of fever involves both medical care and supportive measures.

Hydration: Adequate hydration is crucial. Patients should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration caused by fever and sweating.

Pain and fever management; Pain relievers like acetaminophen are helpful to manage pain and fever. Avoid Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) drugs like ibuprofen, as they can increase the risk of bleeding.

Rest: Sufficient rest is essential to help the body recover and combat the infection.

Medical monitoring: Patients should be closely monitored, especially if their condition deteriorates. severe dengue requires hospitalization and medical intervention.

Blood transfusion: In severe cases with significant bleeding, blood transfusions may be necessary.

Precautions and prevention.

Prevention is the cornerstone of controlling this type of fever.

Mosquito control: The best way to prevent the disease is to prevent bites by infected mosquitoes, particularly if you are living in or travelling to a tropical area. This involves protecting yourself and making efforts to keep the mosquito population down. Eliminate mosquito breeding sites by emptying containers, cleaning gutters, and covering water storage. Use insecticides and mosquito nets and wear protective clothing to reduce exposure to mosquito bites.

Community engagement; Raise awareness about its prevention in communities, schools, and workplaces.

Vector control: Public health agency should conduct vector control programs to reduce mosquito populations.

Travel precautions: Travelers to Dengue-prone areas to take precautions such as using mosquito repellents and staying in air conditioned or screened- in accommodations. Use mosquito repellents, even indoors. When outdoors, wear long sleeved T-shirts and long pants stuck into socks. When indoors use air conditioning if available. Make sure window and door screens are secure and free for holes. If sleeping areas are not screened or air conditioned, use mosquito nets.

Vaccine development: Researchers are working on developing a dengue vaccine to provide immunity against all four serotypes.


In summary, Dengue fever is a significant global health challenge, with its prevalence and impact increasing in many parts of the world. Understanding its causes, symptoms, management, and preventive measures is crucial for individuals, communities, and health care systems. Lastly, by taking proactive steps to control mosquito populations and raise awareness about prevention, we can collectively combat the spread of dengue and reduce its impact on public health. To know more about health and wellness, read my latest book, the magical ways for sparkling lifestyle. Follow my Instagram page.

Dr.Hetal Patel


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